Electric & Hydrogen Technology
THE FIRST IN SOLAR POWERED GARAGE TECHNOLOGY
Solar Energy Systems for the 21st Century
A 21st Century Delivery System for Electric Vehicle Technology….
A schematic breakdown
We are basing the “SOLAR GARAGE” design on several factors
First, How do we calculate the recharge rate of a battery bank to run our Electric vehicle ? The answer to that question consists of four factors:
- the Average full sunlight hours in your area.
- the amp/Hours of batteries at the 20 hour rate.
- the maximum power current for your Solar module.
- the discharge rate of your battery bank.
- 1st Example: 8 – 12 Volt – 130/ampheres/hour batteries = 1040 amp hours
A) At a 20 % depth of discharge = 208 amp/hours drawn 7.1 Amps from module multiplied by 5 hours full sunlight = 35.5 module amps 208 amp/hours discharge divide by 35.5 module amps = 5.9 or 6 Solar modules
B) At a 50% discharge = 520 AH draw = 14.6 or 15 modules needed to fully recharge the 8 battery, battery pack
2nd Example: 8 – 12 volt – 200 amps/hour batteries = 1600 amp hours
A) At a 20 % depth of discharge = 320 amp/hours drawn 7.1 amps from module multiplied by 5 hours full sunlight = 35.5 module amps 320 amp/hours discharge divide by 35.5 module amps = 9 Solar modules
B) At a 50 % discharge = 800 AH draw = 22.3 or 23 modules needed to fully recharge the 8 battery, battery pack
As for producing energy on Cloudy Days, the amount of current produced depends on how much light is able to penetrate the clouds. Any module will produce some current during a cloudy day. Generally, when I design a system, I will try and design within 5 to 10 days of autonomy.
Email firstname.lastname@example.org for more design details.
If we do not come up with inspiration to help solve the worlds problems
then we lose the very influence we had sought to gain.
(John Kennedy – November 1963)
A – TYPES OF FUEL CELLS
HOW DOES A FUEL CELL WORK?
Basically, fuel cells are batteries. This concept gets somewhat confusing. Electric vehicles per say are also powered by batteries which can also be generated by Solar Cells. The difference with electric vehicles powered by hydrogen is the hydrogen generates electricity by eletrochemical reactions. It consists of two electrodes, anode and cathode, which surround electrolyte in the cell.
The electrolyte is a composition of various chemical compounds, which include catalysts. When hydrogen (H2) is fed into the cell with oxygen (O2), chemical reactions take place in the electrolyte and the reaction rates are increased by catalysts which, therefore enable the fuel cell to generate sufficient power.
Basic layout of a fuel cell H2 is fed into the anode of the cell while O2 enters the cell through the cathode. By reactions, H2 atoms split into protons (+ve) and electrons (-ve), which we will call charge carriers. When protons and electrons flow to cathodes in different directions it creates an electrical current and hence electricity.
- Phosphoric Acid cells are the most common type of fuel cell used in the automotive industry. It operates at a temperature in the range of 400 degrees fahrenheit and provides up to 40% efficiency compared to 30% for most EV vehicles. High efficiency allows it to be used in large and heavy loaded vehicles.
- Proton exchange membranes operate at a lower temperature (around 200 degrees farenheit) and they can vary their output quickly to cope with a sudden power demand and hence it is suitable for an automobile which requires quick starts.
- Molten Carbonate cells are highly efficient electrical power units and have operating temperatures of around 1200 degrees fahrenheit.
- Solid oxide fuel cells are used in high power applications such as industrial scale power stations. This type of fuel cell can generate up to 100 kilowatts of electrical power and has an effeciency rating of around 60 percent. Since the fuel is in solid form, the operating temperature can reach 1800 degrees fahenheit.
- Alkaline fuel cells have very high effenciency of about 70 percent. However, the cost of of manufacture is so high that it is not applicable for commercial use.
STRUCTURE OF A HYDROGEN POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE
The basic setup of the hydrogen vehicle maintains the control system in the front of the vehicle and the fuel storage tank is in the rear of the vehicle.
For different types of vehicles the layout of power control units will not be the same. As the engine size is greatly reduced, the size of the fuel storage compartments can be increased. There is no uniformity currently for the hydrogen fuel storage compartments. As an example the fuel storage compartment in a Mercedes 190 will not also work in the Honda EV as a fuel storage compartment. Without such uniformity in the EV marketplace there can be no reasonable expectations for growth in the hydrogen EV marketplace. That is where the concept of Solar Powered hydrogen Stations come into play.
The need for SOLAR HYDRO SERVICE STATIONS while a concept today has much potential. Hydrogen generated Service Stations will be needed as the incremental growth of hydrogen powered vehicles comes into the Automotive marketplace and contrary to Oil and Gas executives this is coming on faster than any of us expect.
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